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  Basic Selection Criteria
Stud welding processes include Arc stud welding and CD stud welding
  1. Fastener Size: If the stud is larger than 3/8" in diameter arc stud welding must be used.
  2. Parent Metal Thickness: If the parent metal is less than 16 gauge, the CD system should be used. For metals in excess of 16 gauge, either system may be used.
  3. Material Composition: Both processes are compatible with mild steels, austenitic stainless steels, and various aluminum alloys. Copper, brass, and many exotic metals, however, are best welded with CD studs.
For more information detailed engineering data on CD stud welding, see the Perry Stud Welding representative.

  How Do Arc and CD Welding Differ?

Arc Stud Welding - The Process

Arc stud welding involves the same basic principles and metallurgical aspects as any other arc welding procedure, in that a controlled electric arc is used to melt the stud or electrode and a portion of the base metal. The stud is thrust automatically into the molten metal and a high quality fusion weld is accomplished where the weld is stronger than the stud itself. Stud welding is applicable to mild steel, stainless and aluminum.

Stud and ceramic ferrule against the work plate Stud lifts and arc is drawn
Stud and ceramic ferrule
against the work plate
Stud lifts and
arc is drawn
Control times out; stud plunges into molten steel Metal solidifies; weld is completed in a split second
Control times out; stud
plunges into molten steel
Metal solidifies; weld is
completed in a split second


Welded fasteners or studs may be almost any size or type, and there are literally hundreds. However, they must be made of weldable materials, and one end of the fastener must be designed for welding. Conventional DC welding machines of all types may be used, but special power units designed specifically for stud welding are also available.

Advantages of Arc

  • Larger diameter Fasteners (up to 1-1/4")
  • Penetration of weld zone for structural-type strength
  • Welded metal fastening to heavier base materials
  • 230, 460, 575 volt sourcing
  • Ceramic Arc Shields or Ferrules used to maintain weld

CD Stud Welding - The Process

Capacitor Discharge (CD) stud welding is a semi-automatic arc welding process. However, with CD welding small diameter fasteners (1/4" and under) are end welded to extremely thin gauge parent metal. The CD process operates on the principle of capacitor stored energy which is instantaneously discharged by the equipment system through a special weld "timing" tip.

Stud against the work plate Stored energy discharged through special weld Timing Tip; stud starts downward
Stud against the
work plate
Stored energy discharged
through special weld
"timing" tip;
stud starts downward
Stud forced into molten metal Metal solidifies; weld is completed in a split second
Stud forced into
molten metal
Metal solidifies; weld is
completed in a split second


Since the entire weld cycle is completed in several milliseconds, welds can be made to thin sheet without pronounced distortion, burn-through or discoloration. CD welding permits stud welding of dissimilar metals.

Advantages of CD

  • Welding to thin and sheet metal grade material
  • No reverse side marking
  • Up to 3/8" diameter fasteners
  • Only 115 volt power required
  • Up to 20 welds per minute
  • Welded metal fastening of dissimilar metals
For every design, for every purpose, there is one stud welded fastener best suited for the application at the lowest cost.

  Stud Welding Can Help You Reduce Costs

Where end joined components are required, stud welding can reduce costs through labor savings and material savings. Stud welding can speed up design time and application rates, and can eliminate the need for many common secondary operations. Bosses and spotfacing, counterboring, undercutting and manual fillet welding, soldering, drilling and tapping, riveting, inserts and special retainers are often totally eliminated. Yet in most cases the welded joint is stronger than many of those traditional joining methods.

A single operator -- working with a single system, from just one side of the workpiece -- can attach many parts each minute.


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